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中国老年人低就业率成因：与俄罗斯的跨国比较

• 出版日期:2020-04-25 发布日期:2020-04-15

The Reason for the Low Elderly Employment Rate in China: Comparison with Russia

Wan Haiyuan Han Lili Shen Meng

• Online:2020-04-25 Published:2020-04-15

Abstract: It is important to explore the elderly human resource in the background of rapid aging in China. Using the household survey data in China and Russia from 1988 to 2013, we find that China’s elderly employment rate is much lower than its counterpart and the disadvantage even expands in the past 25 years. We then use the Oaxaca method to decompose the contribution sources of the decline in employment rate, thus explaining the reason for the low employment of urban elderly in China. Generally, we argue that the cultural and institutional factors are not sufficient to explain the low employment rate in China, while the labor market and its changes are the main reasons. Compared to Russia, economic growth in China leads to diversified income structure and stable wealth accumulation, while the increasing young migrants crowd out the elderly from the market. The labor market changes lead to decline in the employment willingness and employment competitiveness for the elderly, so it is possible to explain the low and declining employment rate for the elderly in China. Therefore, we should break the labor market segmentation, help the elderly realize job transformation, improve the self-employment environment, increase irregular employment opportunities and employment training for the elderly, encourage the elderly with educational expertise to become an important complement to the labor force in China.