• •

### 我国城镇居民收入分配机会不平等因何而生

• 出版日期:2018-09-25 发布日期:2018-09-25

### What Are the Reasons for Unequal Opportunity in Urban Residents’ Income Distribution

Li Ying & Lv Guangming

• Online:2018-09-25 Published:2018-09-25

Abstract: According to Roemer’s binary framework of circumstances and efforts, this paper applies CHIP data to build a set of relatively comprehensive circumstance factors. Then the unequal opportunity in urban residents’ income distribution and its specific generating channels through counterfactual income which is based on ex-ante approach are indirectly measured. Ages, gender and regions are also chosen to make further analysis on the heterogeneous characteristics of urban residents’ unequal opportunity. It is found that 1) unequal opportunity caused by circumstances can account to 23.2% of income inequality. The extent of unequal opportunity is added up as the ages increase, showing an inverted U-shaped trend, and the turning point is at the ages of 51 to 60. The degree of unequal opportunity among females is higher than males. And the unequal opportunity is in a descending order from the eastern region to the central region and then to the western regions. 2) from the perspective of the generating channels, 78.3% of the unequal opportunity derives from the direct channel effects of circumstances on income, and the remaining 21.7% is from indirect channel effect of circumstance variables, but the relative weights differ among different age groups. The indirect channel effect on the female group is twice more than on male’s. Just like the trend of degree of opportunity inequality, the indirect channel effects are also descended from the eastern, to central and then to western regions in turn. Policies aiming to reduce income inequality should be oriented toward compensating the differences of circumstance variables, such as ages, gender and regions, eventually make everyone’s identical effort to be rewarded as equally as possible.